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PLoS One. 2016 Sep 19;11(9):e0163178. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163178. eCollection 2016.

 

Effects of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone Concentration on the Bacterial Community in the Phyllosphere and Rhizoplane of Rice.

Ueda Y1, Frindte K2, Knief C2, Ashrafuzzaman M1, Frei M1.

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Abstract

Microbes constitute a vital part of the plant holobiont. They establish plant-microbe or microbe-microbe associations, forming a unique microbiota with each plant species and under different environmental conditions. These microbial communities have to adapt to diverse environmental conditions, such as geographical location, climate conditions and soil types, and are subjected to changes in their surrounding environment. Elevated ozone concentration is one of the most important aspects of global change, but its effect on microbial communities living on plant surfaces has barely been investigated. In the current study, we aimed at elucidating the potential effect of elevated ozone concentrations on the phyllosphere (aerial part of the plant) and rhizoplane (surface of the root) microbiota by adopting next-generation 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. A standard japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare and an ozone-tolerant breeding line L81 (Nipponbare background) were pre-grown in a greenhouse for 10 weeks and then exposed to ozone at 85 ppb for 7 h daily for 30 days in open top chambers. Microbial cells were collected from the phyllosphere and rhizoplane separately. The treatment or different genotypes did not affect various diversity indices. On the other hand, the relative abundance of some bacterial taxa were significantly affected in the rhizoplane community of ozone-treated plants. A significant effect of ozone was detected by homogeneity of molecular variance analysis in the phyllosphere, meaning that the community from ozone-treated phyllosphere samples was more variable than those from control plants. In addition, a weak treatment effect was observed by clustering samples based on the Yue and Clayton and weighted UniFrac distance matrices among samples. We therefore conclude that the elevated ozone concentrations affected the bacterial community structure of the phyllosphere and the rhizosplane as a whole, even though this effect was rather weak and did not lead to changes of the function of the communities.

PMID: 27643794 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163178

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13.

BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 19;16:493. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1838-y.

 

First case report of infection due to Cupriavidus gilardii in a patient without immunodeficiency: a case report.

Kobayashi T1,2, Nakamura I3, Fujita H1,2, Tsukimori A1,2, Sato A1, Fukushima S1, Ohkusu K2, Matsumoto T2.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cupriavidus gilardii is an aerobic, Gram-negative, glucose-nonfermenting rod that was first identified in 1999. Because of the difficulty in accurate species identification of C. gilardii, there are few case reports of infection caused by this organism. In previous reports, C. gilardii has been characterized as an organism with low pathogenicity that causes opportunistic infections.

CASE PRESENTATION:

We encountered a case of pacemaker-associated bloodstream infection caused by C. gilardii in a 90-year old woman without obvious immunodeficiency. We identified the isolates as C. gilardii by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The patient was treated with removal of the lead and administration of antimicrobial agents. Because of the acquisition of antibiotic resistance during antibiotic treatment, the antimicrobial agent was changed during the course of treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infection caused by this organism in a patient without obvious immunodeficiency. Although the true pathogenicity of C. gilardii is unclear, the possibility that it exerts pathogenicity not only in persons with immunodeficiency but also in immunocompetent persons is suggested.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial resistance; Case report; Cupriavidus gilardii; Glucose non-fermenting gram-negative rod; Immunocompetent patient; Pacemaker-associated bloodstream infection; Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene

PMID: 27643790 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1838-y

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14.

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 19;11(9):e0163148. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163148. eCollection 2016.

 

Evaluation of Lysis Methods for the Extraction of Bacterial DNA for Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota.

Gill C1, van de Wijgert JH1, Blow F2, Darby AC2.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recent studies on the vaginal microbiota have employed molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the bacterial community as a whole. These techniques require the lysis of bacterial cells to release DNA before purification and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Currently, methods for the lysis of bacterial cells are not standardised and there is potential for introducing bias into the results if some bacterial species are lysed less efficiently than others. This study aimed to compare the results of vaginal microbiota profiling using four different pretreatment methods for the lysis of bacterial samples (30 min of lysis with lysozyme, 16 hours of lysis with lysozyme, 60 min of lysis with a mixture of lysozyme, mutanolysin and lysostaphin and 30 min of lysis with lysozyme followed by bead beating) prior to chemical and enzyme-based DNA extraction with a commercial kit.

RESULTS:

After extraction, DNA yield did not significantly differ between methods with the exception of lysis with lysozyme combined with bead beating which produced significantly lower yields when compared to lysis with the enzyme cocktail or 30 min lysis with lysozyme only. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the observed alpha diversity of samples. The beta diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) between different lysis methods was statistically significantly different, but this difference was small compared to differences between samples, and did not affect the grouping of samples with similar vaginal bacterial community structure by hierarchical clustering.

CONCLUSIONS:

An understanding of how laboratory methods affect the results of microbiota studies is vital in order to accurately interpret the results and make valid comparisons between studies. Our results indicate that the choice of lysis method does not prevent the detection of effects relating to the type of vaginal bacterial community one of the main outcome measures of epidemiological studies. However, we recommend that the same method is used on all samples within a particular study.

PMID: 27643503 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163148

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15.

J Hypertens. 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 1:e187. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000500405.96430.2e.

 

ED 05-2 INTERACTION OF GUT DYSBIOSIS AND INNATE IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME.

Lee MS1.

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Abstract

Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet. Reduced abundance of Akkermansia in HFD-fed mice was reversed by metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic medicine. Oral administration of Akkermansia to HFD-fed mice significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity and attenuated adipose tissue inflammation probably by inducing Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the visceral adipose tissue. We also studied Paneth cells, specialized intestinal epithelial cells that produce antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and shape gut microbial milieu. We studied whether high-fat diet (HFD) impairs the function of Paneth cells and interferes with intestinal microbial homeostasis, potentially contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome. HFD-fed mice exhibited reduced expressions of some AMP and defective antimicrobial activity, which led to loss of epithelial integrity and a significantly higher content of LPS in the liver and serum of HFD-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Antibiotic treatment reduced translocation of bacterial components, steatosis, and inflammation in the liver of HFD-fed mice, which in turn improved systemic glucose metabolism. HFD-fed mice were also more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, probably due to impaired Paneth cell function. Our data suggest that Paneth cell dysfunction may be one of the underlying mechanisms of glucose intolerance and inflammatory bowel disease associated with western diet. These results suggest that high-fat diet could be a risk factor not only for metabolic syndrome but also for colitis, and modulation of the gut microbiota or Paneth cell function could be a new therapeutic modality against metabolic syndrome or colitis associated with western diet.

PMID: 27642901 DOI: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000500405.96430.2e

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